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Basic Concept of the control system

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14-August-2022 UI/UX

Basic Concept of the control system

The control system can be defined as the effective combination of the various elements connected as a respective unit and used to direct and regulate itself or the other system to provide specific output known Control System.

Basic Concept of the control system

Basic Concept of the Control System

A system in the control system is defined as the well-defined arrangement of the various components working together as a collective unit to achieve the various multiple tasks. However, the physical system is the collection of the objects (Physical) used to achieve the objective.

For example, a college with tables, fans, light, blackboards, intelligent boards, benches, etc., collectively forms the physical objects.

Another example is the lake's water is also included in the physical system.

In this tutorial, we will discover the following topics as part of the basic concept of the control system:

  1. What do you understand by the term Control System?
  2. Discuss the classification of the control system.
  3. What are the essential components of the control system?
  4.  What are the compelling Features of the control system?

What do you mean by the Control System?

The control system can be defined as the effective combination of the various elements connected as a respective unit and used to direct and regulate itself or the other system to provide specific output known Control System. And it was known that controlling is best used to supervise and regulate.

Example: Washing Machine, Traffic Lights control system, a television system, refrigerator, air conditioner, and many more.

Traffic Lights control System: The Traffic Control system is usually considered the best control system example, as in these, the input signal sequence is applied to the respective control system. The output is none other than the three lights (of a different colour) that will remain ON for some specific period, and when one of them is ON, the other two lights will be OFF. So, the lights ON and OFF are operated at the junction, which uses the control system.

Discuss the classification of the control system.

There are various types of the control system which are involved in performing the controlling action, and they are as follows:

  1. Open Loop Control System: The primary relationship with the Open Loop control system is that the particular applied Input or the various controlling factor is independent of the system output.

The open-loop control systems are sometimes termed the non-feedback system because there is no comparison between the inputs and the outputs of the particular procedure for controlling actions.

The block diagram of the Open-loop system is as follows:

 

Controller

Controlled Process

 

       
       

 

Input                                                                                                                     Output

 

Example: Immersion rod

It was known that the immersion rod is used to heat the water; when the inputs are provided, the external supply is given to the particular rod, and the respective rods will start heating the water. Still, there is no way through which the rod can sense the required level of the heating, i.e., feedback is not present.

Thus, it is a practical example of the open-loop control system.

 

  1. Closed-Loop Control System: In the closed-loop system, the particular controlling factor or the applied Input that depend upon the output of the system, and the closed-loop system can be termed to be the feedback control system the reason behind that is that in such a system, there is a need of the comparison between the input and the output (achieved) output is done to get the desired output signals respectively.

 

 

Controlled process

The block diagram of the Closed-loop system is as follows:

 

 

Controller

Amplifier

 

           
     
     
   
 

 

Input                                                                                                                                                      

 

       
   
     
 

 

 

Feedback

                                                                                                                       Output

 

             Example: Air Conditioners.

Air conditioners are the best example of the closed-loop system as these are used to regulate the room temperature, so these control systems use the thermostat as a feedback unit.

First, the actual temperature is used to regulate the room temperature. Then, the temperature is maintained as per the requirement of the individual to get the specified temperature maintained.

Components of the Control System

The major components that are related to the control systems are of two types that are as follows:

  1. Controlled Process: It is associated with the part of the system that is required for the controlling of the processes is only termed to be the controlled process or also termed to be the plant.
  2. Controller: It contains the system's internal and external elements that control the process and is termed the controller.

Some other aspects related to them are as follows:

  • Input: It was assumed that for each system to provide the specific results, some excitation signal must be provided, and this signal is given through the external source. So, the movement that is provided externally for the respective operation is termed to be the Input.
  •  Output: The overall response of the particular system is usually achieved after applying the inputs, known as the output.
  • Disturbances: It was seen that sometimes when providing the required respective Input, the system fails to generate the effective and the desired results or the inputs so that the signal can be caused by the variations in the separate desired outputs is only termed to be the disturbances.

Furthermore, the disturbances can be of two types depending upon their origin, which are as follows:

  1. Internal Disturbances.
  2. External Disturbances.

Features of the control system

The various features that are related to the control system are as follows:

  • Sensitivity: Sensitivity is the ability to show the instant variation in the individual output whenever any changes might exist in the Input. In these, there are various external parameters such as the change in the temperature or the difference in the atmospheric conditions responsible for hindering the system's actual performance.
  • Stability: In these, the important thing is that the system must be stable enough while dealing with the output without showing any fluctuation over the respective time.
  • Noise is the unwanted signal that hinders a particular system's performance and is only called noise.
  • Accuracy: It deals with the system's dealing with precision so that there is less possibility of the chance of getting the error while achieving the value of the output. And many more.

 

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