Important Features of Spring Framework | Javatpoint

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16-November-2022 Java

What is the Spring Framework?

Spring Framework, along with various Spring Projects, gives every one of the fundamental tools and elements to take care of any client's necessity while making easy, the development process.

What is the Spring Framework?

Beginner's Guide to Spring Framework

Java is one of the most famous and broadly utilized programming languages, driving everything from mobile applications to huge scope endeavour frameworks. Since Java can control practically any sort of improvement, various systems and instruments have advanced to rearrange and smooth out Java-based programming advancements.

With regards to building Java-based web applications, Spring is quite possibly of the most well-known system.

What is the Spring Framework?

The Spring Framework is an open-source system for building endeavour Java applications. Spring plans to work on the intricate and bulky endeavour Java application improvement process by offering a structure that incorporates innovations, for example,

  • Aspect-oriented programming (AOP)
  • Dependency injection (DI)
  • Plain Old Java Object (POJO)

Indeed, even with this level of innovations, Spring is a lightweight system that can be utilized to make versatile, secure, and vigorous endeavour web applications.

At a large scale, we can consider the Spring system a contribution of sub structures, for example, Spring Web Flow, Spring MVC, and Spring ORM. Adding to Java, Spring additionally helps Kotlin and Groovy.

The Java Spring framework Training is additionally the base that drives the wide range of various Spring-based projects, for example,

  • Spring Boot
  • Spring Cloud
  • Spring GraphQL

Important Features of Spring Framework

Let’s have a look at the most important features of the Spring framework.

IoC (Inversion of Control) Container

IoC container is one of the centre highlights of Spring that gives a smoothed-out method for designing and handling Java objects. This container is answerable for dealing with the lifecycle of a characterized Java object, fundamentally expanding the configurability of a Spring-based application.

IoC uses the reliance infusion or reliance query examples to give the article reference during runtime. The container comprises of constructing agent code that is expected for the setup of the executives.

Spring gives org.springframework.beans and org.springframework.context bundles can be utilized to work with these capabilities.

Support for aspect-oriented programming

AOP plans to give greater modification to the cross-cutting worries, which are the capabilities that range across the application, for example,

  • Logging
  • Caching
  • Transaction management
  • Authentication
  • Etc.

Besides, AOP supplements object-oriented programming by giving an alternate method for organizing the program, where OOP modularity depends on classes.

In AOP, the primary unit of modularity is a perspective (cross-cutting concern). This empowers clients to utilize AOP to make custom angles and decisive venture administrations. The IoC container doesn't rely upon AOP, offering further opportunity for designers to choose their favoured programming strategy.

Be that as it may, Aspect-Oriented Programming joined with the Spring IoC gives a vigorous middleware arrangement.

Data access framework

Data set correspondence issues are one of the normal issues engineers faces while creating applications. Spring works on the data base communication process by offering direct help for well known information access systems in Java, like JDBC, Hibernate, Java Persistence API (JPA), and so on.

Also, it offers highlights, for example, asset the executives,  exception handling, and asset wrapping for every one of the upheld information access systems, further working on the advancement cycle.

Transaction management framework

In contrast to the Java Transaction API (JTA), the Spring Transaction Management Framework isn't restricted to worldwide and settled exchanges. Spring offers a deliberation instrument for Java that empowers clients to:

  • Work with neighbourhood, worldwide, and settled exchanges
  • Save points
  • Work on exchange the board across the application

The Spring Data Access Framework straightforwardly coordinates with the Transaction Management Framework with help for informing and reserving. This empowers engineers to make include rich value-based frameworks that range across the applications without relying upon EJB or JTA.

Spring MVC system

The Spring MVC empowers engineers to make applications utilizing the famous MVC design. It is a request-based structure that allows designers to effortlessly make tweaked MVC executions that suit their requirements.

The centre part of Spring MVC is the Dispatcher Servlet class which handles client demands and afterwards forwards them to the right controller. This permits the controller to deal with the request, make the model and give the data to the end-user by utilizing a predetermined view.

Spring web administration

This Spring Web Service part gives a smooth method for making and handling web administration endpoints in the application. It offers a layered way that can be overseen with the help of XML and also can be used to give planning to web requests to a particular item.

Spring test frameworks

Testing is a centre piece of any turn of events. Spring works on testing inside the system with parts like:

  • Mock objects
  • Test Context framework
  • Spring MVC Test
  • Etc.

Spring Framework Architecture

Well, we've looked at the highlights that make Spring a fantastic system. Presently we'll investigate the design of Spring — the engineering that works with this large number of highlights.

The above chart shows the fundamental parts of the Spring construction. As it can be seen, Spring is constructed by using various modules that empower different functionality.

Core container

This contains the essential modules that are the foundation of the Spring framework.

  • Core (spring-core) is the core of the framework that power elements like Inversion of Control and dependency injection.
  • Beans (spring-beans) gives Bean-factory, which is a complex application of the factory design.
  • Context (spring-context) is raised on Core and Beans and gives a medium to reach to the characterized objects. Application Context connection point is the core part of the Context module, and the spring-context-support offers help for third-party action, for example, caching, mailing, and template engines.
  • SpEL (spring-expression) empowers clients to utilize the Spring Expression Language to question and control the article diagram at runtime.

Information access

This involves the modules that are utilized to deal with information access and transaction processing in an application.

  1. JDBC (spring-jdbc) gives a JDBC distractive layer that kills the need to isolate JDBC coding while managing data sets.
  2. ORM (spring-orm) are combination layers for famous object-relational planning API like JPA, JDO Hibernate.
  3. OXM (spring-oxm) is the distractive layer that supports Object/XML planning executions like JAXB, XStream.
  4. JMS (spring-jms) is the Java Messaging Service module that makes and consumes messages that straightforwardly integrate with the Spring messaging module.
  5. Transaction (spring-tx) offers automatic and explanatory exchange management for classes that involve exceptional connection points and POJOs.



The Web layer connects with modules that power web-based tasks in Spring.

  • WebSocket (spring-websocket) powers the web socket-based communication for clients and servers.
  • Servlet (spring-webmvc) is the Spring WebMVC module that contains the MVC and REST applications.
  • Web (spring-web) gives all the fundamental web-oriented characteristic and contains an HTTP client and web-related pieces of the Spring remoting.
  • Portlet (spring-webmvc-portlet) gives the MVC execution to be utilized in a portlet environment.


Different Modules

  1. AOP (spring-aop) has a perspective that gives arranged programming execution that can further be used while making applications.
  2. Aspects (spring-aspects) empowers direct integration with the AspectJ programming extension by the eclipse foundation.
  3. Instrumentation (spring-instrument) is the class instrumentation support and class loader executions for application servers.
  4. Messaging (spring-messaging) gives a strong stage to handle messaging in applications.
  5. Test (spring-test) is the Spring test module that helps unit and integration testing with JUnit and TestNG.


Beginning with the Spring framework

Since we know and understands well enough that what makes Spring a genuinely extraordinary framework, so now let's have a look at how one can start developing a Spring project.

We will utilize a Windows environment and Visual Studio Code as our IDE for the example below. In the first place, we really want Java installed on our PC. You can get the most recent prebuilt open-source Java (OpenJDK) binaries from the Adoptium project. We will use the most recent LTS issue at the time of composing this article which is OpenJDK 17 (LTS).

OpenJDK console

While you can any time make a Spring project physically, the spring initializer gives clients a simple method for designing the task by using spring boot. Spring Boot is an augmentation of the Spring framework that empowers clients to make an independent Spring-based application with minimized conditions.

The spring initializer gives an centralized stage to effortlessly make a Spring project with various choices, including project type (Maven/Gradle), language (Java, Kotlin, Groovy), Project metadata, Packaging, Java form, and conditions.

We will make a straightforward Maven Project named test_app in com.myproject bunch using Java and Spring Boot 2.5.5 focusing on Java 17 (OpenJDK) with Spring Web as the reliance.

Spring Intializr

The above activity will produce a zip file. Extract that zip file and open the folder in the IDE. Since we are utilizing Visual Studio Code as our IDE, ensure that you have introduced the suitable VS Code expansions to help Java and Spring.

Explore to the essential java record (Example :<Name>\src\main\java\com\myproject\test_app\ and change the code as follows. It will make a basic web server that returns a greeting when a client explores to the greetings URL.

package com.myproject.test_app;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;

import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestParam;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;



public class TestAppApplication {

public static void main(String[] args) {, args);



public String hello(@RequestParam(value = "name", defaultValue = "World") String name) {

return String.format("<h1>Hello %s!, This is My First Spring Project</h1>", name);




VS Code view:

Code Editor


Now we can construct and execute the task by opening the terminal in the base of the folder of that task and running the following order.

/mvnw spring-boot:run



Spring Result

It will fire up the web server, and we can explore to the good greetings page with the help of the accompanying URL design.


Spring can power enterprise Java apps

Spring is a strong Java framework that can be used to power enterprise-grade Java applications at any scale. Although it can sometimes become complicated and overwhelming, you can, without much of a stretch, get the hang of this system and construct the next great software if you start from the beginning.

Spring Framework, along with various Spring Projects, gives every one of the fundamental tools and elements to take care of any client's necessity while making easy, the development process.



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