SDLC: Software Development Life Cycle | Javatpoint

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16-November-2022 Software Testing

Software Development Life Cycle

A life cycle model shows every procedure needed to move a software application through each step of its life cycle. It also defines the appropriate structure in which these methods are to be utilized.

Software Development Life Cycle

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

The software life cycle is represented pictorially and diagrammatically by a software life cycle model, also known as a process model. A life cycle model shows every procedure needed to move a software application through each step of its life cycle. It also defines the appropriate structure in which these methods are to be utilized.

In other words, a life cycle model shows the different tasks carried out on a piece of software from conception until retirement. The essential development activities may be scheduled according to phases in various life cycle models. Hence, there is no component wherein the life cycle model is applied; all life cycle models include the actions. However, depending on the life cycle model, they may be done in different sequences. Multiple activities can be carried out at every stage of the life cycle.

Requirement of SDLC

The development team should choose an appropriate life cycle model for a specific strategy and then analyse it.

A software product will not be developed in a structured and professional manner without an accurate life cycle model. There has to be clarity among team members over when and what to do when building a software product. If not, it would be an indication of disorder and project failure. You can use an example to describe this issue. Let's assume a problem with software development is divided into several sections and given to the team members. Assume the team leader is then allowed to modify the responsibilities that are given to them however they feel Comfortable. One person might decide to begin writing the code for his portion first; another would decide to create the test papers first, and another might start with the design process of the duties given to him. This would be among the best ways to fail a project.

A software life cycle model describes the requirements for entering and leaving every phase. Only if the stage-entry needs have been fulfilled the phase can be started. Therefore, detecting the entrance and exit requirements for a stage is impossible without a software life cycle model. This becomes difficult for software project managers to keep control of the project's development without software life cycle models.

SDLC Phases

The following SDLC steps comprise the full SDLC process:

  1. Phase 1: Collecting and Analysing requirements
  2. Phase 2: A feasibility study
  3. Phase 3: Design
  4. Phase 4: Coding
  5. Phase 5: Testing
  6. Phase 6: Installation/Deployment
  7. Phase 7: Maintenance

I have described each phase of the software development life cycle in this tutorial.

Phase 1: Collecting and Analysing requirements

The most crucial phase of the SDLC is Requirement Analysis.

  • The core staff members carry it out using input from all the stakeholders, domain experts, and SMEs in the sector.
  • At this point, planning is also conducted for the demands for quality assurance and the detection of project-related concerns.
  • Business analysts and project managers schedule a conversation with the client to collect all the information needed, such as what the customer wants to create, who would be the end-user and the product's goal. A fundamental knowledge or understanding of the product is important before building it.
  • As an example, a customer requests a banking transaction-related app. This approach involves certain requirements, such as what transactions will be performed, how they will be performed, in what currency they will be performed, etc.
  • Once the needed task has been completed, the analysis of the profitability of a product's growth is done. There is a signal set up for additional discussion in the event of ambiguity.
  • The SRS (Software Requirement Specification) document is prepared once the requirements have been understood. This document should be carefully monitored by the programmers and checked by the client for future reference.

Phase 2: A feasibility study

Technical: It is necessary to confirm that the current software demands are defined and documented after the requirement analysis step of the software development life cycle is finished. The "Software Requirement Specification" document, also referred to as the "SRS" document, was used to carry out this procedure. Everything that has to be designed and developed throughout the project life cycle is included

The main types of feasibility checks are as follows:

  1. Economical: Is it possible to finish the project on time and within budget?
  2. Legal: Can we perform this process in accordance with cyber law and other legal requirements?
  3. Operation feasibility: Are we able to produce activities that the client expects?
  4. The software can be supported by the computer
  5. Schedule: Make a decision as to whether the project can be done on time.


Phase 3: Design

The software and system design documents are created in the third phase in line with the requirement specification document. This aids in designing the structure of the entire system.

The model's next phase is informed by the design phase.

In this step, two different types of design documents are founded:

High-Level Design (HLD)

  1. A concise description and the names of every module
  2. A description of each and every module's features
  3. Module dependencies and interface relationships
  4. Identification of database tables and their essential components
  5. Detailed architecture diagrams and technology information

Low-Level Design (LLD)

  1. The modules' functional logic
  2. Database tables with type and size information
  3. Detailed description of the interface
  4.  Deals with all kinds of dependency concerns
  5. A collection of error messages
  6. Full input and output data for each module

Phase 4: Coding

The system design stage is followed by the coding step. In this stage, programmers begin to create the complete system by writing the code in the programming language of their choice. Work is divided into parts or units and given to different programmers across the coding stage. It is the stage of the software development life cycle that lasts the longest.

During this stage, the developer must adhere to specific code rules. They must also employ development tools like interpreters, debuggers, and compilers to create and implement the code.

Phase 5: Testing

When the software is ready, it is installed in the testing set. The testing group starts by checking the system's overall functionality. This is developed to ensure that the entire programme functions in line with the client's requirements.

The QA and testing team may discover various flaws or faults at this phase as they report to programmers. The problem is fixed by the development team and sent back to QA for another test. This procedure is repeated until the programme is free of bugs, stable, and meets the system's business requirements.

Phase 6: Installation/ Deployment

The final deployment procedure begins after the software testing step is complete, and there are no bugs or errors remaining in the system. The final software is published and inspected for deployment issues based on the project manager's advice.


Phase 7: Maintenance

The following 3 things happen once the system is deployed and clients use the created system.

1) Fixing bugs - some cases that are not tested at all leads to reported bugs.

2) Upgrade - Upgrading the software programme to a newer version

3) Enhancement - Including some additional features in the existing software. 


The primary aim of this phase of the SDLC is to make absolutely sure that requirements are still being addressed and that the system is still operating in accordance with the first phase's specifications.

Famous SDLC Models

Here are a few of the Software Development Life Cycle's (SDLC) most notable models:

SDLC's waterfall model

The waterfall model of the SDLC is widely used. This method divides the whole software development process into several SDLC stages. The results of one phase serve as the input for the subsequent one in this SDLC model.

This SDLC model heavily relies on documentation, with early phases documenting what has to be done in later stages.

SDLC Incremental Model

The incremental model is not a separate model.  In general, it consists of waterfall cycles. At the beginning of the project, the requirements are split into teams. The SDLC model is used in the software development process for every group. Every release adds more functionality as the SDLC life cycle is repeated till all criteria are fulfilled. Every cycle in this technique acts as the maintenance phase for the initial software release. The incremental model has been modified to allow for overlapping development cycles. After that, the subsequent cycle can begin before the preceding one is finished.

SDLC's V-Model

Testing and development are planned jointly in this form of the SDLC model. Therefore, the SDLC validation phase is on the other side from the verification phases. By the coding phase, V-Model joins.

SDLC Agile Model

The agile method is a technique that enables regular contact between developers and testers throughout the SDLC process of every project. The entire project is split into small incremental builds using the Agile methodology. Each iteration of these builds will last between one and three weeks, and they are all provided in iterations.

Spiral Model

A model of a risk-driven operation is the spiral model. The group can use this SDLC testing model to adapt elements by one or more process models, such as waterfall and incremental.

The waterfall model and the best elements of the prototype model are blended into this concept. Rapid prototyping and simultaneous design and development tasks are combined in the spiral process.

Big Bang model

The big bang methodology and coding focus on all available resources with little to no planning. When necessary, the needs are recognised and carried out.

This model performs well when development teams are small and jointly working on smaller projects. It is also helpful for software development projects in education. It is the best approach in cases when the needs are uncertain, or the actual release date also isn't clear.


  1. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a method for creating software that assures its accuracy and quality.
  2. Software Development Life Cycle or Systems Development Life Cycle is the complete form of SDLC.
  3. In software engineering, the SDLC offers a structure for a common set of tasks and outputs.
  4. Seven SDLC phases are as follows:
  • Requirement collection and analysis
  • Feasibility study:
  • Design
  • Coding
  • Testing:
  • Installation/Deployment and
  • Maintenance


5. This phase of requirement analysis is carried out by the senior group leaders.

6. Everything that has to be designed earlier in the development cycle is included in the feasibility study stage.

7. The software and system design documents are created during the design process in accordance with the requirement specification document.

8. During the coding phase, programmers begin to create the complete system by writing code in the programming language of their choice.

9. The final process, testing, is carried out to ensure that the complete application satisfies the client's requirements.

10. Setup and deployment begin after all bugs and errors were resolved from the system during the software testing process.

11. Actions covered by the maintenance face include bug fixing, upgrading, and engaging

12. In software engineering, common SDLC models include Waterfall, Incremental, Agile, V model, Spiral, and Big Bang.

13. In software testing, the SDLC consists of a detailed plan that specifies how to arrange, create, and maintain any software.





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