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Software Engineering: Software Maintenance Cost Factors

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02-August-2022 Software Engineering

Software Engineering: Software Maintenance Cost Factors

In this tutorial, we will learn about the following things as the part of software engineering and The main aim of software engineering is that they are meant to ensure that the software should be developed consistently with correctness within the time limit and following the budget defined for the particular project.

Software Engineering: Software Maintenance Cost Factors

Software Engineering: Software Maintenance Cost Factors

Software Engineering is a brief analysis of the requirements laid down by the user. After that, designing, building and performing the test on the developed software applications that can satisfy the user's needs.

  • According to the IEEE, software engineering can be defined as the application of the systematic, disciplined, that is the computable approach to perform the following operations on the development of the software as follows:
  1. Development.
  2. Operation.
  3. And the Maintenance of the software.

 

The main aim of software engineering is that they are meant to ensure that the software should be developed consistently with correctness within the time limit and following the budget defined for the particular project.

 

In this tutorial, we will learn about the following things as the part of software engineering is as follows:

  1. What do you understand by the term Software Maintenance?
  2. Need of the Software Maintenance.
  3. Types of the Software Maintenance.
  4. What are the Software Maintenance Cost Factors?

 

What do you understand by the term Software Maintenance?

The term software maintenance can be defined as the process of updating the particular software as well as improving it under the requirement of the client, these processes are performed after the initial release of the developed software to the public, and the software maintenance occurs just after the task has been completed that are related to the engineering, design, architecture, implementation, testing as well as the deployment of the software.

Furthermore, product maintenance is not only about fixing the occurred bugs or errors and adding more lines of the code rather than that it is considered to be the comprehensive set of activities used to do modifications. The adjustment of the software and the time taken for the development of the software is about to be two years, and the time taken for the Maintenance can last up to 15 to 20 years.

 

Need for the Software Maintenance

There are various reasons why the Maintenance of the software is required to be done depending upon the need of the developed software; some of the reasons are as follows:

  1. For performing corrections over the bugs and the errors that have occurred during the software development.
  2. To make changes in the design of the software.
  3. In adapting the respective software to the different environments and the challenges.
  4. Software Maintenance can also be needed to integrate the systems with the other methods.
  5. It can also be used in making detect technical difficulties and also preventing them in advance.
  6. Many more.

 

Types of the Software Maintenance

According to Herb Krasner, software maintenance can be categorized into four types that are as follows:

  • Corrective Maintenance.
  • Adaptive Maintenance.
  • Perfective Maintenance.
  • Preventive Maintenance.

 

  1. Corrective Maintenance: It is vital in the Maintenance of the software; corrective Maintenance helps fix the bugs in the existing code for the development of the software.

For example: Let us assume an app or the website that, in turn, allows the people to authorize with the help of their social media accounts, and when we deploy it then, our end-users start getting notified that they cannot log in to their app, and it is due to the possibility that there could be a bug or the errors in the existing code that the messes with the respective authentication process and the fixing of the occurred bugs that are already existed when the separate software gets released is only termed to be the corrective Maintenance.

 

  1. Adaptive Maintenance: Adaptive Maintenance in software development is required when we want to adapt the software (developed one) to the new environment due to several changes in the requirement compared to the previous one.

For example, We have created and released a native app for Android but later on decided to add an app for iOS also, or also due to some changes in the third-party API (Application Program Interface) that stops users from authorizing it properly, and we don't have a bug in the existing code. Still, it must adapt the software to the environment to function well without creating difficulties.

 

  1. Perfective Maintenance: This type of Maintenance involves the necessary changes in the existing product functionality with the help of various features such as:
  • Refining.
  • Deleting.
  • And Adding.

For example, We have released the software or the app in the market, and after its release, we can ask for feedback from the user. Suppose the user has experienced the dark side of the apps or the software. In that case, he will give feedback according to that and then the team can make changes in the existing software or the app according to their needs and the feedback received from the various users.

 

  1. Preventive Maintenance: This type of Maintenance deals with updating the thorough documentation, making necessary changes to the software to make them more effective and maintainable and predicting as well as making analysis in advance where an error or bugs might occur.

 

What are the Software Maintenance Cost Factors?

There are two types of factors that are affecting the Maintenance of the software as follows:

  • Technical.
  • Non-technical.

 

Technical Factors: The various technical factors are as follows:

  1. Programming Language: It was concluded that the programs that are written in high-level programming languages that may, including Pascal, FORTRAN, etc., are considered to be easier to understand as compared to the programs written in low-level languages like the Machine language and the Assembly language.
  2. Programming Style: The style of the program plays a crucial role in Maintenance, which means the written program must be simple to understand so that modification can be done efficiently and effectively.
  3. Module Independence: In this, the transparency must be maintained, which means changing one unit or a single module is possible without affecting the other.
  4. Documentation: In this, if the respective programs have well-supported systems, then the cost rate associated with that programs must be less than those with inadequate documentation, and understanding of the programs can help in writing the documents concisely form.
  5. Program validation and testing: It was assumed that if the respective program has fewer bugs or errors, the maintenance cost would be less than the program with more bugs.
  6.  

6)Configuration Management Techniques: The documents that are kept must be consistent and easy to handle the cost related to the Maintenance, and if the configuration is made effective, then automatically, the maintenance cost will be lowered.

 

 

Non-technical factors: The various factors that are associated with the Non-technical are as follows:

 

  1. Application Domain: These state that when the program application s is well defined, then the requirements related to the system are definitive, that in turn leads to less cost in Maintenance.
  2. Staff Stability: It states that if the implementation of the system also maintains that effective system, that will reduce the maintenance cost.

Moreover, it is painless for the original writer of the program to understand it and make modifications according to that rather than the person who only reads the code and makes modifications.

  1. Program Lifetime: It was considered that when the particular program becomes absolute, or we can say that the original hardware is replaced, then, in that case, the cost associated with the conversion may exceed the price related to the rewriting.
  2. Dependence on the external environment: Basically, it states that when the respective programs are dependent upon the various external settings, then, in that case, they will be modified as per the climatic conditions.
  3. Hardware Stability: If the hardware used in the programs is permanent or long-lasting, it will not cost any amount in their Maintenance.

 

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